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David H Kreling, PhD


The interplay of economics, markets/marketing, and policy provides a dynamic mix of issues and research questions for study. It also is exciting because such research often can have broad ranging implications for pharmacy, pharmacists, consumers, and society.


Dr. Kreling earned a BS degree in pharmacy from Ferris State University, a MS in pharmacy administration from Purdue University and PhD in pharmacy administration from the University of Texas at Austin. He joined the faculty of the UW School of Pharmacy after completing his graduate work. He has been an administrative board member of the Sonderreger Research Center since its inception in 1986 and is Director of the SRC Pharmacy Practice Enhancement and Action Research Link (PEARL Rx), a fledgling research network of pharmacist partners throughout Wisconsin. As a member of the Midwest Pharmacy Workforce Consortium Dr. Kreling has been a key researcher for national pharmacist workforce studies and has been involved in biennial state-wide salary and workforce studies throughout his tenure at UW. Dr. Kreling also is a Fellow of the Academy of Pharmaceutical Research and Science in the American Pharmacists Association.

Dr. Kreling practiced as a pharmacist in independent, chain, and institutional pharmacies before completing his Ph.D. His primary academic and research interests are in what often is referred to as traditional pharmacy administration, marketing and economics. Much of his research has been in the area of pharmacy economics and policy, primarily finance and reimbursement issues in community pharmacy. Other research activities have spanned a variety of topics generally related to pharmacy, practice, and consumers. He has published on topics including formularies, drug coverage, prescription costs and pricing, pharmacy benefit managers, pharmacist salaries, and general trends related to prescription drugs, with funding for his research from a variety of sources including state and federal government agencies, private corporations, state and national organizations, and foundations.

Professional Interests: Pharmacy economics and policy, pharmacist workforce, and pharmacist services.


  • BS 1978 Pharmacy - Ferris State University
  • MS 1981 Pharmacy Admin. - Purdue University
  • PhD 1984 Pharmacy Admin - University of Texas
Highlighted Publications:
  • Kreling DH, Mott DA. The Biennial Wisconsin Pharmacist Workforce Survey: 2013 Results. Journal of the pharmacy Society of Wisconsin. (Jan/Feb 2015):6-13.
  • Faeber AE and Kreling DH. "Content analysis of false and misleading claims in television advertising for prescription and nonprescription drugs" Journal of General Internal Medicine 2014 Jan; 29(1):110-8.
  • Chen YC and Kreling DH. "The effect of the Medicare Part D benzodiazepine exclusion on the utilization patterns of benzodiazepines and substitute medications".  Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy. 2014 Mar-Apr; 10(2):438-47.
  • Kelton CM, Chang LV, and Kreling DH. "State Medicaid programs missed $220 million in uncaptured savings as generic fluoxetine came to market, 2001-05".  Health Aff (Millwood). 2013 Jul;32(7):1204-11.
  • Doucette WR, Nevins JC, Gaither CA, Kreling DH, Mott DA, Pedersen CA, Schommer JC. Organizational Factors Influencing Pharmacy Practice Change. Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy. 2012 July-August, 8(4):274-284.
  • Look KA, Mott DA, Leedham RK, Kreling DH, Hermansen-Kobulnicky CJ. Pharmacy Participation and Claim Characteristics in the Wisconsin Medicaid Pharmaceutical Care Program from 1996 to 2007. Journal of Managed Care Pharmacy. March 2012, 18(2):116-128.
  • Faerber AE and Kreling DH. Content Analysis of Television Advertising for Drugs That Switch from Prescription to Over-the-Counter: Balancing Information and Appeals. Drug Information Journal. March 2012, 46(2):226-234.
  • Faerber AE and Kreling DH. "Now you see it. Now you don't: fair balance and adequate provision in advertisements for drugs before and after the switch from prescription to over-the-counter". Health Communication.  2012;27(1):66-74.
  • Chen Y-C, Wu M, Tarn Y-H, Ho R-S, Kreling DH. A National Public Perception Survey about Community Pharmacists in Taiwan. International Journal of Pharmacy Practice. 2010 published online 2011, doi:: 10.1111/j.2042-7174.2011.00174x2010.
  • Kreling DH, Doucette WR, Chang EH, Gaither CA, Mott DA, Schommer JC. "Practice characteristics of BS and PharmD degreed pharmacists based on the 2009 National Workforce Survey" American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education. 2010 Nov 10; 74(9):159.
  • Look KA, Mott DA, Kreling DH, Peterson EJ, Staresinic AG. "Economic impact of pharmacist-reimbursed drug therapy modification" Journal of the American Pharmacist Association (2003). 2011 Jan-Feb 51(1):58-64.
  • Martin BA, Chui MA, Mott DA, Thorpe JM, Kreling DH. Development of a Scale to Measure Pharmacists' Self-Efficacy in Performing Medication Therapy Management Services. Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy. June 2010, 6(2):155-161.
  • Mott DA, Thorpe JM, Thorpe CT, Kreling DH, Gadkari AS. "Effects of Medicare Part D on drug affordability and use: Are Seniors with prior high out-of-pocket drug spending affected more?" Research in Social & Administrative Pharmacy. 2010 Jun;6(2):90-9.
  • Gadkari AS, Mott DA, Kreling DH, Bonnarens JK. Pharmacy characteristics associated with the provision of drug therapy services in nonmetropolitan community pharmacies. J Rural Health. 2009, 25(3):290-5.
  • Mott DA, Cline RR, Kreling DH, Pedersen CA, Doucette WR, Gaither CA, Schommer JC. "Exploring trends and determinants of pharmacist wage rates: evidence from the 2000 and 2004 National Pharmacist Workforce Survey" Journal of the American Pharmacists Association (2003). 2008 Sep-Oct;48(5):586-97.
  • Gaither CA, Nadkarni A, Mott DA, Schommer JC, Doucette WR, Kreling DH, Pedersen CA. Should I Stay or Should I Go? The Influence of Individual and Organizational Factors on Pharmacists' Future Work Plans. Journal of the American Pharmaceutical Association. 47(March/April 2007):165-173.
  • Schommer JC, Pedersen CA, Gaither CA, Doucette WR, Kreling DH, Mott DA. Pharmacists' Time in Work Activities (Desired, Actual and Gaps): Evidence from the 2004 National Pharmacists Workforce Study. Journal of the American Pharmaceutical Association. 46(May/June 2006):40-47.
  • Kreling DH, Doucette WR, Mott DA, Gaither CA, Pedersen CA, Schommer JC. "Community pharmacists' work environments: evidence from the 2004 National Pharmacist Workforce Study" Journal of the American Pharmaceutical Association (2003). 2006 May-Jun; 46(3):331-9.
  • Mott DA, Doucette WR, Gaither CA, Kreling DH, Pedersen CA, Schommer JC. "Pharmacist participation in the workforce: 1990, 2000, 2004" Journal of the American Pharmaceutical Association (2003).  2006 May-Jun; 46(3):322-30.
  • Sriwong, B., Kreling DH. "Application of Levitt's total product concept to pharmacist services development" Journal of Pharmaceutical Marketing and Management (2004). 16(4):47-64.
  • Craig BM, Kreling DH, Mott DA. "Do seniors get the drugs prescribed for them? Evidence from the 1996-1999 Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey" Health Affairs (Millwood.  2003 May-Jun;22(3):175-82.